Article on Artificial Intelligence

Man is the only creature in this entire universe, to whom God has given the brain and the skill to use it in the right way. Man has reached far today with his intelligence and skill and with this strength of intelligence, humans have made many other inventions like computers, internet, smart phones and because of which we human life has got a new direction. Human beings have developed so much in the field of technology that now the person is thinking of creating a moving machine which can think and use brain and have the ability to work just like human. The machine made from this advanced technology is called Artificial Intelligence (AI).

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

The literal meaning of Artificial is made by someone and Intelligence means the power of thinking . AI is a branch of computer science that is used for developing a machine that can think and act like a human. When we make a computer in such a way that it can do human work, then it is called Artificial Intelligence. In other words, when we set such programs in a machine so that it can work like a human then it is called AI. The power of intelligence grows automatically inside human beings by seeing, listening, touching , smelling and remembering something, so that we can think that how we should behave with that thing by learning from past experiences. In the same manner, such a kind of intelligence is developed inside the computer machine, through which a computer system or robotic system is created, which runs on the same logic on the basis of which the human brain works.

When man was discovering the real power of computer, then the human mind again forced him to think in his mind whether a machine can also think like a human. The only objective was to create such an intelligent machine that is as intelligent as humans and has the ability to think, understand and learn like them.

Artificial intelligence is not a new topic; it has been discussed all over the world for decades. The films like Matrix, Robot, Terminator has the base of AI, where the nature of the robot is shown, how it thinks and act like humans. The term artificial intelligence was first used by John McCarthy in 1955. He was an American computer scientist who first told about this technology in a conference in 1956. That is why he is called the Father of AI. He said that it is being planned to make such a computer control machine or a software that can think the same way as the human mind thinks. Humans want machines and computers to do the work of thinking, analyzing and remembering instead of their brains, that is why emphasis is being laid on the progress of AI.

What are different types of AI?

Types of Artificial Intelligence

Reactive machines: Don’t have past experiences and memories but reacts according to the situations. It will react in same manner every time for same situation. Example IBM’s machine Deep Blue, Chess-playing supercomputer. It analyzes the pieces on the chess board and reacts to it.

Limited memory: In addition to reactive machines capabilities, it also has ability to learn and take decisions by using store data. All the current applications come under this category.

Theory of mind: Machine learns by observing behavior of another simulated agent while interaction and changes its behavior accordingly. Researchers are still working on concept of theory of mind AI.

Self-awareness: This AI is an extension of theory of mind where machine will understand emotions of other entity but will also have its own emotions and consciousness. This type is final stage of AI, currently doesn’t exist.

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI): They can only perform those tasks for which they have been programmed. It can very well perform single task. Machine Learning and Deep learning fall under this category. Example: SIRI, CORTANA, ALEXA, ANSHIA.

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): This type of AI system will be able to perform multi task independently without any training as we human do. It is still theoretical concept.

Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI): This AI will be most advanced intelligent machine that would perform far better than human. They will be capable of taking rational decision and building emotional relationship. Even this is just a concept.

How AI works and what are basic components of AI?

Artificial Intelligence vs Machine Learning vs Deep Learning

Machine Learning: Machine learning gives the system the ability to learn and make itself perfect on its own from its experience. The primary importance is to allow the computer to learn by itself without the human being. Machine Learning is focused on the development of computer programs that can access data and learn on its own. Just as humans improve their abilities from their experience, in the same way AI is programmed, through which machines can also do learning.

Deep Learning: Deep learning is a subset of machine learning, which in turn is a subset of Artificial Intelligence. Deep learning is type of machine learning that uses multi layer neural network to classify data, learn and predict output.

Neural Networks: Artificial neural network is inspired by the structure and function of the human brain. It filters the data as human brain does.

Natural Language Processing: An ability of a computer to understand languages spoken or written by human and respond to it accordingly.

Computer Vision: Training the computer to learn, analyze and interpret digital images and videos.

Cognitive Computing: Computerized model that uses technologies like reasoning, NLP, machine learning to imitate human brain. More about Cognitive Computing...

Where is AI used?

The popularity of AI is increasing and it has become a topic that is being discussed a lot in the field of technology and business. Many experts and industry analyst believe that AI or Machine Learning is our future, but if we look around us, we will find that it is not our future but is our present. With the development of technology, today we are connected with AI in some way or the other and are also using it. Recently many companies have invested a lot on machine learning; due to this many apps and products have become available to us.

  1. Voice-based personal assistant Apple's personal assistant SIRI, Windows Cortana, Amazon Alexa, Google personal assistant, Famark ANSHIA, is a great example of AI. With this, you can get all the things done that you used to do earlier by typing on the Internet. Example like sending messages, searching for some information from the Internet and opening an application, Setting timers, setting alarms, etc. you can do all these work without touching the mobile by just speaking or saying. All these personal assistants use machine learning technology to understand your language and questions.
  2. Web mapping platform: Google uses AI in many of its application, but AI has been used very well in Google Maps. Google Maps tracks our location and also uses AI enabled mapping to tell us the right route and help us to tell the right route.
  3. Smart speaker device: Ecommerce website Amazon has launched revolutionary product called echo which can answer your questions, read audio books, tell about traffic, weather report, sports scores and sports schedules.
  4. Autonomous vehicle: AI is being used not only in smart phones but also in Automobile, if you like cars then you must know about Self driving car feature.
  5. Automated machines in manufacturing industry: AI forming the base of Industry 4.0 application in the manufacturing industry; the work which used to take hundreds of people to do earlier, today with the help of machines, the same work is being done very quickly and efficiently.
  6. Entertainment: Glimpse of AI is also seen in video games, like in many games you have to play with computer like Chess and Ludo. AI is used in video game design, content recommendation, and music composition.
  7. Speech recognition: Ability to recognize spoken words and converting it into text format.
  8. Computer vision: Ability to derive meaningful inferences from images and videos.
  9. Robotics: Designing, assembling and making functional machine that can perform various tasks.
  10. Finances: Predict and assess financial risks, detecting fraud, advice on trade and finance by determining market pattern.
  11. Weather forecasting and Climate Research: Helps in disaster management by predicting storms and floods accurately. AI aids in analyzing large environmental datasets for patterns and insights.
  12. Health industry: Diagnosing patient remotely using symptom checker, performing robotic surgery, Virtual Assistants, earlier cancer detection with accurate Image analysis. Early stage diagnosis of deadly blood diseases and many more.
  13. Aviation: Predictive maintenance, passenger analytics by movement of passengers at airport, self-pilot mode in flights, enhancing travelers experience from flight booking to boarding pass, managing baggage.
  14. Agriculture: AI can optimize crop yield through data analysis and autonomous machinery.
  15. Customer Service: AI-powered chatbots assist customers with inquiries and support.

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence

  1. AI helps us to reduce errors and chances of achieving results with greater accuracy increase.
  2. AI helps in taking quick decisions and act faster.
  3. Unlike humans, machines do not require rest and refreshment. They are able to work for long hours, neither get bored, neither gets distracted nor does get tired.
  4. With the help of AI, there can be a big change in the areas of communication, defense, health, disaster management and agriculture etc.

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

  1. The benefits of AI are not clear but regarding its dangers, it can be said that humans will face biggest loss due to the arrival of AI.
  2. AI will work in place of humans and machines will make their own decisions and if they are not controlled then they can be a danger to humans.
  3. Experts say that if thinking robots start considering humans as their enemies for some reason or circumstance, then there can be a danger to humanity.
  4. There is no doubt that AI will snatch away many jobs from human beings, the problem of unemployment is going to increase in the future.
  5. AI requires huge investment as it is very complex machine. They require huge money for maintenance.
  6. AI is such a technology that we are also using it to our advantage in many areas but the truth is also that if we do not find a way to avoid this risk, then it can have serious consequences. Despite all the benefits of AI, it has many dangers of its own.
  7. Lacks in creativity.

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